Galileo Galilei was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. Stephen Hawking says, "Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science."
The science of astronomy took a huge leap forward in the first decade of the 1600s with the invention of the optical telescope and its use to study the night sky. Galileo did not invent the telescope but was the first to use it systematically to observe celestial objects and record his discoveries.
The telescope changed our lives, and Richard Panek's book Seeing and Believing is about how it happened. We learn for instance, that Galileo did not "invent" the telescope in 1609, as is popularly supposed, nor was he even the first to think of using it for scientific exploration.
In the 19th century astronomers spent a lot of time seeking shadows crossing the sun. They were searching for Vulcan, a putative planet inside the orbit of Mercury.Sadly, there was no Vulcan to be found, but the method itself is sound, and it is the modus operandi of Kepler.
Des instruments de plus en plus grands, des centaines de découvertes dans le cadre des théories existantes, et aucune révolution scientifique à l'horizon. Les sciences en 2009 ont avancé à vitesse constante avec puissance.